The invention of Chess has been attributed to the Indians both by the Persian people and by the Arabs who later conquered Persia. Abu al-Hasan 'Alī al-Mas'ūdī, an Arab historian, provided scholarly details of the game as it was played in India and elsewhere. He details the use of chess as a tool for warfare strategy, mathematical calculations, gambling and even its vague association with astronomy.Mas'ūdī notes that Ivory in India was chiefly used for the production of chess and backgammon pieces used by the Indians, and asserts that the game was introduced from India along with the book Kelileh va Demneh during the reign of emperor Nushirwan.
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